All visitors to the US must apply for a visa or some sort of travel document, especially those from countries that do not have travel agreements with the US.
Visitors to Canada not covered under travel agreements with Canada, which includes most western countries, must file for a visa. Check to see if a visa is necessary here.
For those that need a visa, please visit the Canadian Citizenship and Immigration website and access the following areas: application, overview, requirements, and more. Also check out other websites for more information.
Canadian visas are pretty easy to get, with most not requiring an interview. However, Canadian visas are delivered through a special courier company, so the total fees can be quite expensive.
Note that US permanent residents do not need a visa if they bring along their resident documents.
Most visitors to China will need to apply for a visa. One or multiple visit visas are available, but generally are limited to one year.
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Visas for Travel
This section contains information relevant for travel to other countries. While Japanese nationals can visit almost any other country visa-free, citizens of other countries may not be able to do so.